Photo description: Young woman riding a traditional bicycle along a dike road with wind turbines


%pt percentage point
BMI body mass index
CBS Statistics Netherlands
CES Conference of European Statisticians
CH4 methane (greenhouse gas)
CO2 carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas)
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
COVID-19 infectious disease caused by coronavirus SARs-coV-2
CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis
CSR corporate social responsibility
EC European Commission
EEA European Economic Area
ECN Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands
EMU European Economic and Monetary Union
ETS Emissions Trading System
EU European Union
EU2020 Long-term strategy of the EU
EU28 28 member states of the EU (from 1 July 2013)
FTE full-time equivalent
GALI Global Limitation Activity Index
GDP gross domestic product
GNI gross national income
ha hectare
HAVO senior general secondary education
HICP harmonised index of consumer prices
ICT information and communication technology
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
ISCED International Standard Classification of Education
kg kilogram
LDCs least developed countries
LIR labour-income ratio
LPI Living Planet Index
m2 square metre
m3 cubic metre
MBO senior secondary vocational education and training
mln million
Mtonne megatonne
N2O nitrous oxide (laughing gas)
NEA National Survey on Working Conditions
NL Netherlands
NNN Netherlands Nature Network
OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency
PCT Patent Cooperation Treaty
PFAS Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance
PIAAC Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies
PISA Programme for International Student Assessment
PJ petajoule
PM2.5 fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometres or less
PWI Personal Well-being Index
R&D research and development
RIVM National Institute of Public Health and the Environment
SCP Netherlands Institute for Social Research
SDG Sustainable Development Goal
SMEs small and medium-sized enterprises
TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research
UN United Nations
VMBO preparatory secondary vocational education
VWO pre-university education
WCED World Commission on Environment and Development
WHO World Health Organization


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More information (in Dutch only):

Explanation of symbols

. Data not available
* Provisional figure
** Revised provisional figure
x Publication prohibited (confidential figure)
(Between two figures) inclusive
0 (0.0) Less than half of unit concerned
empty cell Not applicable
2019–2020 2019 to 2020 inclusive
2019/2020 Average for 2019 to 2020 inclusive
2019/’20 Crop year, financial year, school year, etc., beginning in 2019 and ending in 2020
2017/’18–2019/’20 Crop year, financial year, school year, etc., 2017/18 to 2019/20 inclusive

Due to rounding, some totals may not correspond to the sum of the separate figures.

About CBS

CBS responds to developments in Dutch society by providing statistical information as facts that matter, and communicates on these facts with the outside world. In doing so, CBS offers insights into current developments in society and helps answer policy questions. Research at CBS is focused on broad trends in society and how these are interrelated.

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